In this analysis, we delve into the integration and youth policies of eight European nations – Italy, Malta, Spain, Sweden, Belgium, France, and Greece. These countries, each with its unique socio-political landscape, tackle the complex challenges and opportunities presented by migration and diverse populations through varied approaches.
Southern European Perspectives: Italy, Malta, Spain, and Sweden In Southern Europe, Italy unveiled its National Integration Plan in 2017, emphasizing inter-religious dialogue, language training, education access, and labor inclusion. However, limited implementation by the close of 2019 prompted pilot actions in collaboration with the UNHCR. Malta, without a standalone integration law, initiated its “Integration = Belonging” strategy in 2017, focusing on equality and anti-discrimination. Spain’s efforts involve regional and municipal programs, notably the Youth Strategy 2020, impacting employment, participation, and associationism for individuals aged 16 to 29. Sweden, in its 2016 Aliens Act, shifted asylum policies to grant temporary permits, and its national youth policy aims at ensuring young people’s access to good living conditions and societal participation.
Northern European Perspectives: Belgium, France, and Greece In Northern Europe, Belgium’s decentralized governance allows French, German, and Flemish-speaking communities to manage integration matters, with youth policies stimulating active citizenship. France relies on the Code de l’éducation for youth policies and CESEDA for migration regulations, emphasizing integration through the Republican Integration Contract. Greece, with its legal framework, focuses on equal opportunities and personal development in youth policies, complemented by integration strategies like the 2013 National Strategy and the 2019 National Integration Strategy.
In comparing these nations, Belgium adopts a decentralized approach to youth and integration policies, France emphasizes legal frameworks and education, and Greece employs overarching strategies with fragmented local programs. Italy, Malta, Spain, and Sweden in Southern Europe showcase diverse integration efforts, reflecting a commitment to addressing the multifaceted aspects of migration. Sweden stands out for its inclusive voting rights, demonstrating a commitment to inclusivity in the European context. Collectively, these European nations demonstrate varied and nuanced strategies, reflecting the complexity of managing migration and fostering integration, especially concerning youth.
The fact sheets created by the CEUTH partnership for each country serve as valuable resources, encapsulating the nuances of integration, youth policies, and migration challenges. This comparative overview highlights the diverse approaches and strategies undertaken by these European nations, offering insights into the evolving landscape of policies addressing the intersection of migration and youth in the region. The fact sheets provide an essential reference for policymakers, researchers, and stakeholders interested in understanding and addressing the challenges and opportunities presented by diverse populations and migration in Europe.